## June 18, 2011 Process for negative results is really consistent with that for positive results. When you drop the leading 1 for positive results you're really subtracting that power of 10. Then you add 1. If you do that in the above case, you get 75-100+1=-24. Of course, doing it that way would be silly. 9's compliment rearranges the calculation to -((100-1)-75)=-(99-75)=-24.

You can think of the carry-out (the leading 1) as a '+' sign. For completeness, we have to look at the case of zero result:

25-25=0;

25+74=99 (no carry-out, so treat result as negative):
nines-compliment(99)=0. Or, -(99-99)=0. thanks a lot 4 this .Nice teachings In any base a "sign" digit may be placed to the left of the number. a "0" identifies the number following it as positive, while the "highest count" in that base identifies the number as negative with the understanding that the number following the "highest count" is the complement of the answer to that base. In base ten, 0472=+472 because the first 0 indicates a + and the number is 472. 9528=-472 because the 9 indicates that the number is negative and that the number shown is the ten's complement of the number. To extract the number, the ten's complement of the ten's complement shown must be found. To do this, first subtract 1 from the given ten's complement:
528-1=527. Next find the nine's complement of each digit:
9-5=4, 9-2=7, and 9-7=2. Therefore 9528 is the representation of -472.
This method may be used to subtract by adding. In standard arithmetic 793-472=321. This operation may be done by adding the ten's complement of 0472 to 0793. The nine's complement of 0472 is 9527, and the ten's complement is 9528 ten's complement=nine's complement+1). Therefore 0793+9528=10321. The leading 1 must be ignored because the answer must have as many digits as each of the original numbers (four digits in this case). So the answer (with four digits) is 0321. The "0" indicates that the number following it is positive.
If we wanted to perform the following: 472-793=-321, then we would have to add the ten's complement of 0793 to 0472. The nine's complement of 0793 is 9206, and the ten's complement is 9207. Then 0472+9207=9679. No digits have to be neglected here because two original numbers have 4 digits and the anser has 4 digits. The leading nine indicates that the number is negative and that 679 is the ten's complement of the number. The nine's complement is 678, and the number is 321 because 9-6=3, 9-7=2, and 9-8=1.

This is only a preview. Your comment has not yet been posted. Your comment could not be posted. Error type:
Your comment has been saved. Comments are moderated and will not appear until approved by the author. Post another comment

The letters and numbers you entered did not match the image. Please try again.

As a final step before posting your comment, enter the letters and numbers you see in the image below. This prevents automated programs from posting comments.

Having trouble reading this image? View an alternate. Comments are moderated, and will not appear until the author has approved them.

(Name and email address are required. Email address will not be displayed with the comment.)

Editor

free engineering

consulting referral

service at:

IEEE Consultant's

Network of

Long Island

We have over forty

electrical, electronic,

mechanical and

software engineers

with expertise in more

than sixty-five categories

All are members of the

IEEE professional codes

of ethics.

No fee is charged for the

referral service.

Each member is an

independent consultant

and negotiates his/her

own consulting agreement.

Editor: Jerry Brown

Contributors:

John Dunn

Marty Kanner

Murray Kleiner

Dick LaRosa

David Pinkowitz

Carl Schwab

Gerry Bodner

Larry Rachman

Unless otherwise noted,

reprinting or republication

of anarticle on this blog is

authorized by crediting the

author and prominently

displaying the following

sentence at the beginning

or end of the article,

IEEE Consultant's Network

of Long Island

"This report is republished

with permission of IEEE

Consultant's Network of

Long Island"